This article is about the German World War I and World War II army helmet. For the German paramilitary organization after World War I, see Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten. For the 1951 war film, see The Steel Helmet. German Stahlhelm from World War II. Stahlhelm (plural Stahlhelme) is German for "steel helmet". The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional boiled leather Pickelhaube (spiked combat helmet) with the Stahlhelm during World War I in 1916.
The term Stahlhelm refers both to a generic steel helmet, and more specifically to the distinctive (and iconic) German design. The Stahlhelm, with its distinctive "coal scuttle" shape, was instantly recognizable and became a common element of military propaganda on both sides, just like the Pickelhaube before it. Its name was also used by the Stahlhelm, a paramilitary nationalist organization established at the end of 1918.
Background At the beginning of World War I, none of the combatants were issued with any form of protection for the head other than cloth and leather caps, designed at most to protect against saber cuts. When trench warfare began, the number of casualties on all sides suffering from severe head wounds (more often caused by shrapnel bullets or shell fragments than by gunfire) increased dramatically, since the head was typically the most exposed part of the body when in a trench.
The French were the first to see a need for more protection—in late 1915 they began to issue Adrian helmets to their troops. The British and Commonwealth troops followed with the Brodie helmet (a development of which was also later worn by US forces) and the Germans with the Stahlhelm. As the German army behaved hesitantly in the development of an effective head protection, some units developed provisional helmets in 1915.
Stationed in the rocky area of the Vosges the Army Detachment "Gaede" recorded significantly more head injuries caused by stone and shell splinters than did troops in other sectors of the front. The artillery workshop of the Army Detachment developed a helmet that consisted of a leather cap with a steel plate (6 mm thickness). The plate protected not only the forehead but also the eyes and nose. Origin World War I German stormtrooper on the Western Front wearing the Stahlhelm.
The design of the Stahlhelm was carried out by Dr. Friedrich Schwerd of the Technical Institute of Hanover. In early 1915, Schwerd had carried out a study of head wounds suffered during trench warfare and submitted a recommendation for steel helmets, shortly after which he was ordered to Berlin. Schwerd then undertook the task of designing and producing a suitable helmet broadly based on the 15th century sallet, which provided good protection for the head and neck.
 After lengthy development work, which included testing a selection of German and Allied headgear, the first Stahlhelms were tested in November 1915 at the Kummersdorf Proving Ground and then field tested by the 1st Assault Battalion. Thirty thousand examples were ordered, but it was not approved for general issue until New Years 1916, hence it is most usually referred to as the "Model 1916". In February 1916 it was distributed to troops at Verdun, following which the incidence of serious head injuries fell dramatically.
The first German troops who had to use this helmet had been the stormtroopers of the Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 5 (Rohr) which had been commanded by captain Willy Rohr. In contrast to the Hadfield steel used in the British Brodie helmet, the Germans used a harder martensitic silicon/nickel steel. As a result, and also due to the helmet's form, the Stahlhelm had to be formed in heated dies at a greater unit cost than the British helmet, which could be formed in one piece.
 Models The different Stahlhelm designs are named for their year of introduction. For example, the Modell 1942 which was introduced in 1942 is commonly known as M1942 or simply M42. Here, they are referred to by their M19XX names. M1916 and M1917 1916 Stahlhelm with 1918 camouflage pattern applied in the field. (Musée de l'Armée) The Stahlhelm was introduced into regular service during the Verdun campaign in early 1916.
The M1916 design had side-mounted horn-like ventilator lugs which were intended to be support for an additional steel brow plate or Stirnpanzer, which only ever saw limited use by snipers and trench raiding parties, as it was too heavy for general use. The shell came in different sizes, from 60 to 68, with some size 70s reported. Helmet weight varied from 0.98 kg to 1.4 kg, depending on shell size.
The suspension, or liner, consisted of a headband with three segmented leather pouches, each holding padding materials, and leather or fabric cords could be adjusted to provide a comfortable fit. The one-piece leather chin strap was attached to the shell by M1891 chinstrap lugs, the same kind used in the Pickelhaube helmet. The M1916 design provided excellent protection: Reserve Lieutenant Walter Schulze of 8th Company Reserve Infantry Regiment 76 described his combat introduction to the helmet on the Somme, 29 July 1916: ".
.. suddenly, with a great clanging thud, I was hit on the forehead and knocked flying onto the floor of the trench... a shrapnel bullet had hit my helmet with great violence, without piercing it, but sufficiently hard to dent it. If I had, as had been usual up until a few days previously, been wearing a cap, then the Regiment would have had one more man killed." But the helmet was not without its flaws.
The ventilator horns often let cold air in during the winter, requiring the wearer to block the vents with mud or fabric. The large, flared skirt tended to make it difficult for soldiers to hear, distorting surrounding sounds and creating an echo when the wearer spoke. Originally painted Feldgrau (field grey), the Stahlhelm was often camouflaged by troops in the field using mud, foliage, cloth covers, and paint.
Official issue cloth covers in white and grey appeared in late 1916 and early 1917. Camouflage paint was not formally introduced until July 1918, when German Army Order II, No 91 366, signed by General Erich Ludendorff on 7 July 1918, outlined official standards for helmet camouflage. The order stipulated that helmets should be painted in several colors, separated by a finger-wide black line. The colors should be relevant to the season, such as using green, brown and ochre in summer.
 After the effectiveness of the M1916 design was validated during the 1916 campaigns, incremental improvements were subsequently made. The M1917 version saw improvements to the liner, but was otherwise identical to the original design. M1918 World War I Stahlhelm and anti-shrapnel body armour. Extensive redesigns were made for the M1918 model. A new two-piece chin strap was introduced, and was attached directly to the helmet liner rather than the shell.
Certain examples of the M1918 had cutouts in the rim along the sides of the helmet. It has incorrectly been said that these cutouts were to accommodate using headphones while wearing the helmet. These cutouts were actually done to improve hearing and to reduce echo created by the large, flared skirt. The M1918 Stahlhelm can be distinguished from the M1916, as the M1918 shell lacks the chinstrap rivet on the lower side of the helmet skirt found on earlier models.
Austro-Hungarian variants Austro-Hungarian soldiers at the Isonzo front with Stahlhelms. The Austrian Berndorfer variant. Austria-Hungary purchased about 416,000 German helmets from November 1916 until the end of the war and also began its own licensed production starting in May 1917. Around a million Stahlhelms of all variants were issued until the end of the war. Austrian M17 The Austrian M17 helmet was similar to the German M16, but was colored golden-brown (known as Isonzo-braun), had a cloth chinstrap and had the chinstrap rivet located higher up on the steel shell.
From May 1917 till the end of World War I 534,013 were produced, many of which were manufactured at the Krupp in Berndorf, Lower Austria. Other production locations included: Adolf Westen factory Celje, present day Slovenia Brunn am Gebirge, present day Austria C. A. Scholtz Mateocz, present day Slovakia Bruder Lapp, Rottenman u. Warcholowsky Nădrag, present day Romania Reșița, present day Romania Gebruder Bohler & Co.
in Kapfenberg, present day Austria. Hungarian M18 The Hungarian M18 variant was similar to the Austrian M17 design, but the chinstrap rivet was smaller in size and located even higher up than the Austrian version. It was colored in golden-brown (known as Isonzo-braun). These were manufactured at the Krupp in Berndorf, Lower Austria. Berndorfer variant There was also a quite different, domestically developed Berndorfer variant.
139,968 were produced from May till November 1917 at the Krupp in Berndorf, Lower Austria Ottoman variant Germany delivered 5,400 visorless versions of the M1918 helmet for the Ottoman Empire. The missing front visor was thought by the Germans to be for religious reasons, and it was claimed that it was to allow Turkish soldiers to touch their foreheads to the ground during prayer, without removing their helmets.
However, this story has been disputed. The Turks rejected any more than the 5,400 delivered and an unknown number from the overrun were issued to German armed forces and were used by German Freikorps units after the war. M1933 Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler troops wearing refurbished WW1 Stahlhelms, during a drill inspection in Berlin, 1938. German Reichswehr soldiers wearing WW1 Stahlhelms, but with the new insignia.
M1933 Stahlhelm used by Feuerpolizei personnel during the Third Reich. Photo by Karl Gruber. In 1932 the Army High Command ordered the testing of a new prototype helmet intended to replace the older models. It was made entirely from a composite plastic material called "Vulkanfiber". The Model 1933 Vulkanfiber helmet kept the basic form of previous helmets, but was much lighter. It was put into limited production following favourable field tests in early 1933 and small numbers were issued to Reichswehr infantry, artillery and communications units.
It was removed from service following the introduction of the M1935 helmet and most of the remaining stock were reissued to civil organizations such as fire brigades and police forces. Some examples were also retained for parade use by senior officers, who were not generally issued with the Stahlhelm. M1935 Three modern Chinese Cosplayers are dressing the Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers were wearing M1935 helmets during World War II.
In 1934 tests began on an improved Stahlhelm, whose design was a development of World War I models. The Eisenhüttenwerke company of Thale carried out prototype design and testing, with Dr. Friedrich Schwerd once again taking a hand. The new helmet was pressed from sheets of molybdenum steel in several stages. The size of the flared visor and skirt was reduced, and the large projecting lugs for the obsolete armor shield were eliminated.
The ventilator holes were retained, but were set in smaller hollow rivets mounted to the helmet's shell. The edges of the shell were rolled over, creating a smooth edge along the helmet. Finally, a completely new leather suspension, or liner, was incorporated that greatly improved the helmet's safety, adjustability, and comfort for each wearer. These improvements made the new M1935 helmet lighter, more compact, and more comfortable to wear than the previous designs.
The Army's Supreme Command within the Third Reich's Wehrmacht combined armed forces officially accepted the new helmet on June 25, 1935 and it was intended to replace all other helmets in service. Liner system used in M35, M40 and M42 Stahlhelms More than 1 million M1935 helmets were manufactured in the first two years after its introduction, and millions more were produced until 1940 when the basic design and production methods were changed.
Civil defense variant 1944 pattern Luftschutz helmet In 1938, the Germans developed a variant of the Stahlhelm with a wider, flared peak and ventilation holes originally intended for firefighters, civil defense, Reichsarbeitsdienst, and Luftschutz personnel. Known as the gladiator pattern, the privately purchased Luftschutz helmet was originally made from three pieces of steel and typically painted black or dark blue.
 Later in the war these were issued to Volkssturm personnel, and sometimes repainted in Feldgrun. By 1944, the helmets were stamped from a single steel sheet, and the original cloth lining replaced with vinyl to reduce costs. Due to the relatively small number produced, original helmets from the war years are considered rare. However, a modified postwar version in fluorescent green, white or yellow continued to be issued to rescue workers in the Bundesrepublik until the early 1990s.
M1940 The M1935 design was slightly modified in 1940 to simplify its construction, the manufacturing process now incorporating more automated stamping methods. The principal change was to stamp the ventilator hole mounts directly onto the shell, rather than utilizing separate fittings. In other respects, the M1940 helmet was identical to the M1935. The Germans still referred to the M1940 as the M1935, while the M1940 designation were given by collectors.
 Fallschirmjäger version Fallschirmjäger in 1943/1944 A variant of the M1935 helmet with a shell lacking the projecting visor and deep, flared rim was issued to Fallschirmjäger (German paratrooper) units. It was so designed in order to lessen the risk of head injury on landing after a parachute jump; also to reduce the significant wind resistance and resulting neck trauma. Early Fallschirmjäger helmets were manufactured from existing M1935 helmets by removing the undesirable projections, which were omitted when the new design entered full production.
 The modified shell also incorporated a completely different and more substantial liner and chinstrap design that provided far more protection for German airborne troops. The chinstrap featured a four-point retention system that has come into use again by modern combat helmets such as the MICH since the late 1990s. M1942 The M1942 design was a result of wartime demands. The rolled edge on the shell was eliminated, creating an unfinished edge along the rim.
This edge slightly flared out, along the base of the skirt. The elimination of the rolled edge expedited the manufacturing process and reduced the amount of metal used in each helmet. Shell paint colors were typically matte grey-green (Heer) or grey-blue (Luftwaffe), and the decals were eliminated in 1943 to speed up production and reduce the helmet's combat visibility. Greater manufacturing flaws were also observed in M1942 helmets made late in the war.
 M1944 A simpler variant, designed in 1942 by the Institute for Defense Technical Materials Science in Berlin, was also stamped out of one piece of metal, but with sloped sides. It was similar in appearance to the British 1944 Type Mk III helmet. Allegedly it was personally rejected by Hitler as being too foreign. M1945 There have been reports of a variant manufactured in the last months of the war.
The M1945 was reported to have been similar to the M1942 design, but did away completely with the ventilator. These helmets are reported to be extremely rare. Many collectors and historians are of the opinion that the M1945 helmet is either just a regular M1942 helmet that lacked the vents simply because of machine malfunctions in the factory, or unfinished M1942 that were completed in the post-war era.
 M1954 A variant of the M1944 with a modified suspension system, developed further into the M1956. M1956 M1956 East German Stahlhelm The East German M-56 helmet was originally designed in 1942 as a replacement for the M1935/M1940 model Stahlhelm. It was initially developed for the Wehrmacht by the Institute for Defense Technical Materials Science in Berlin (see M1944 above). The helmet had seen trials since 1943, but was not adopted during World War II.
 The design was never progressed and was unused until the requirement for a distinct German helmet for the Volkspolizei and the National People's Army arose. The East German leadership was motivated in large part by a desire to avoid provoking the offence that using a traditional Stahlhelm design would have caused in the Soviet Union, but a more practical military necessity was also present due to the continued use of surplus Stahlhelm by West German units, in particular border guards, moreover, the East Germans suspected the West could re-issue the Stahlhelm on a general basis in the Bundeswehr at any time and therefore needed a helmet that was easily distinguishable from that of their potential enemy.
For both reasons, the 1942 design was likely chosen because it was the most similar of all German designs to the most recognizable Soviet helmets, in particular the iconic SSh-40 design. Indeed, the M-56 was similar enough in appearance to the SSh-40 that some Westerners failed to realize its German origins altogether and assumed the East Germans had adopted a Soviet design. The M-56 helmet came in three basic versions, Mod 1 or I/56, Mod 2 or I/57 and Mod 3 or I/71, and was widely sold (or given) to Third World armies.
The West Germany M-56 Stahlheim was a direct copy of the U.S M1 helmet. It was properly called "zweiteiliger stahlhelm" (two-piece steel helmet.) In 1958 the helmet was made as a one-piece helmet and renamed Stahlhelm M1A1. The M1A1 came in three sizes, 66, 68, and 71. This helmet was used throughout the 1960s and 1970s until 1981 when a modified version was released and renamed the Helm1A1. Modifications included a 3-point chin strap with the third point connecting at the nape, extra large sizes, and a further adjustable liner.
 The M1A1 Stahlhelm remained in service until 1992 when the Bundeswehr replaced it with a PASGT-derived kevlar helmet called the Gefechtshelm ("Fighting helmet"). Decals and insignia Third Reich helmet decals of the army. The Chinese Nationalist Insignia Insignia of the Bolivian Army Colorados regiment, showing a Stahlhelm and two crossed bayonets After Stahlhelm shells were painted, the colours of which varied by organization, small identification or insignia decals usually were affixed to one or both sides of the helmet.
Almost every military, naval, and political organization had its own distinctive insignia, which was applied as decals to the sides of helmets. The right side of early M35 helmets bore the tricolored shield of black, white, and red stripes, the traditional national colors of Imperial Germany (cf. the black, red, and gold of today's Germany, harking back to the 1848 Revolt). The left side of the shell often received decal insignia denoting the branch of the armed forces, or Wehrmacht, or an organization within the Nazi Party.
The combined Wehrmacht military forces of Nazi Germany consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy), and the Luftwaffe (air force). While not technically part of the Wehrmacht, the Waffen-SS ("Armed-SS") tactically operated as such and was considered part of Germany's armed forces during the war. The same was true of some Sturmabteilung (SA) units, along with other subsidiary organizations, which functioned as part of the armed forces particularly towards the end of the war.
Wehrmacht branches typically displayed distinctive emblems in the form of decals on their helmets. The Heer, or army, displayed a black shield bearing the frontal view of a silver-colored German eagle holding a swastika in its talons (known as the Reichsadler), while the navy used the same eagle emblem in gold. Luftwaffe decals displayed the side view of an eagle in flight, also holding a swastika.
The SS was both a paramilitary and a political organization, and its black runic initials on a silver-colored shield (normally applied to the right side of the shell) looked like twin lightning bolts. Other military, political, and civil or defense organizations used similar decal insignia to distinguish their helmets. Such visible identification devices were gradually abandoned as the war progressed, however, so that by war's end most Wehrmacht helmet insignia had been eliminated to reduce the wearer's visibility in combat.
For the Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers, their M35 helmets were printed with the Chinese Nationalist Insignia in both sides. Stahlhelm use in other countries Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers wearing the M1935 helmet. Polish resistance fighters of the Polish Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising. Swiss Model 1918 Helmet Germany exported versions of the M1935 helmet to various countries.
Versions of the M1935 Stahlhelm were sent to Republic of China from 1935 to 1936 and M1935 helmet was the main helmet of the Chinese Nationalist Army during World War II. Spain also received shipments of the helmet. During the inter-war years several military missions were sent to South America under the command of Hans Kundt, after Chaco War the Bolivian army used to wear the helmet up until recently.
The exported M1935 helmets were similar to the German issue, except for a different liner. Some countries manufactured their own helmets using the M1935 design, and this basic design was in use in various nations as late as the 1970s. The Germans allowed and assisted the Hungarians in copying their design of the M1935 steel helmet. Therefore, the WWII-produced M38 Hungarian steel helmet is nearly identical to the German M1935.
Both have the same shape, riveted ventilation holes, and the classic rolled edge. Differences include a different liner and different rivets position - the cotter pins are situated behind the ventilation holes. A square metal bracket is riveted on the rear, above the back brim; used to secure the helmet to the knapsack while marching. It was typically painted in Hungarian brown-green, albeit blue-grey versions existed.
It is sometimes called the "Finnish M35" due to their extensive use by the Finnish Army during the Continuation War 1941-44. After the end of World War I Poland seized large quantities of M1918 helmets. Most of those were later sold to various countries, including Spain. However, at the end of the 1930s it was discovered that the standard Polish wz. 31 helmet was unsuitable for tank troops and motorized units; while offering decent protection, it was too large and heavy.
As a stop-gap measure before a new helmet was developed, the General Staff decided to issue M1918 helmets to the 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade, which used them during the Polish Defensive War. During the time of the Warsaw Uprising the helmet was also worn by the members of the Polish Home Army and it was during this time that the helmet became the symbol of the resistance, as every Stahlhelm worn by the soldier of the underground army signified a dead German occupier it was taken from.
During the inter-war years, the Irish Defence Forces equipped its troops with a copy of the M1918 helmet manufactured by Vickers. At the outbreak of World War II, Ireland remained neutral, but in 1940 Ireland's rapidly expanding Army replaced this helmet with British-style helmets as Vickers had stopped manufacturing the helmet. Switzerland used a helmet, designated the M1918, that was roughly similar to the M1916, but had a shallower, wider and more rounded crown and skirt.
This was to protect against the harsh winter winds of the alpine regions. The Chilean Army was a prolific user of the Vulkanfiber models, bought before the Second World War, along with a few M1935 and Czech M1932 helmets. After the war, local production started, with plastic models still in ceremonial use today. A Stahlhelm with crossed bayonets and the corresponding number is the standard insignia of infantry regiments.
The Argentine Army adopted a similar model, made of pressed fiber, during World War II, reflecting the traditional sympathy towards Germany found in many of the officers. For combat use, imported Swiss M1918 helmet were used up until the 1960's. In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, due to large quantities captured by World War II Partisans, the Stahlhelm was used in Yugoslav People's Army up to 1959, when it was phased out and replaced by the M59/85 steel helmet.
Postwar After World War II, West Germany's Bundesgrenzschutz border guards and some West German police units kept the Stahlhelm in their inventories (police units can be seen wearing them during footage of the Black September hostage crisis in 1972), and the Fallschirmjäger variant was used for some time by the GSG 9. With the re-armament of West Germany the Bundeswehr introduced the United States Army M1 Helmet which was replaced by a Kevlar helmet (Gefechtshelm), similar to the modern US helmets, in the 1990s.
German firefighter units today still use Stahlhelm-shaped helmets in a fluorescent color. East Germany's National People's Army M-56 helmet was modelled on an unused 1942 German design with a more conical shape. The Chilean Army still uses the Stahlhelm design for ceremonial purposes, as well as the Bolivian Army. There are also some Japanese bicycle helmets (with accompanying goggles) that resemble the Stahlhelm.
The U.S. Army's 1980s and 1990s era Kevlar Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops Helmet was sometimes called the "Fritz helmet" for its resemblance to the Stahlhelm. The U.S. Army and Marines have continued to use a design akin to the PASGT helmet with the MICH TC-2000 Combat Helmet and Lightweight Helmet, respectively. The Chinese People's Liberation Army soldiers still used M1935 helmets which were captured from the Chinese Nationalist Army during the Chinese Civil War until the 1970s.
Since 2012, El Salvador's Policia Nacional Civil use a navy/indigo blue-colored helmet that strongly rembles the Stahlhelm; this helmet is used by some members of the riot-control unit and rarely used by the Police's assault teams. Chilean honor guard next to U.S. Admiral Michael G. Mullen in March 2009 German firefighting helmet Argentinian army use of the Stahlhelm, 1930s Finnish AA-MG crew in 1942.
The soldier in the middle has a German M1916 and other two have Hungarian M38 helmets German Civil defense stahlhelm with wider, flared peak in use from the 1940s until the 1990s Ukrainian Euromaidan protester wearing stahlhelm, 2014. The inscription says "Putin, think or you'll end up like Hitler". Users (M1935, M1940 and M1942) Germany Austria Tunisia China Italy Hungary Afghanistan Finland Estonia (M16-18) Greece (limited use by EAM-ELAS Communists) Spain Yugoslavia Belgium Czechoslovakia Colombia Chile Norway Sweden Argentina (M1918 in use as late as December 1975) Latvia (M1918) Lithuania (M1918) Netherlands (Netherlands East-Indies Army, KNIL and local police forces) Indonesia (captured from the Dutch or bought from the Chinese or produced in a small factory in Surabaya) Poland (mostly captured from the Germans by Armia Krajowa partisans) Tunisia (used by National Guard in 60s and spotted in Battle of Ben Guerdane picture of tunisian national guard officer wearing stahlhelm ) Independent State of Croatia See also Wehrmacht uniforms Steel Helmet, League of Front Soldiers Pickelhaube Sallet Notes ^ Suciu, Peter (2 February 2009).
"The first modern steel combat helmet: the French 'Adrian'". Military Trader. Retrieved 13 April 2014. ^ "Infantry Helmets". Militaryheadgear.com. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2014. ^ "German Spare Parts". jonsmith-modellbau.com. Retrieved 26 November 2016. ^ "WKI Gaede Stahlhelm". zib-militaria.de. Retrieved 26 November 2016. ^ Tubbs & Clawson (2000), p. 10. ^ Tenner, Edward (Summer 2003).
"Hardheaded Logic: The Helmet is older than the city-state and newer than the airplane". American Heritage. 19 (1). Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. ^ Dunstan, Simon; Volstad, Ron (1984). Flak Jackets: 20th Century Military Body Armour. Osprey Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 0-85045-569-3. ^ a b Bull, Stephen; Hook, Adam (2002). World War I Trench Warfare: 1914–16. Osprey Publishing. pp. 10–11.
ISBN 1-84176-198-2. ^ Sheldon (2007), p. 219, quoted and translated from Gropp, History of IR 76, p.159. ^ a b c Ortner, M. Christian (2002). The Emperor's coat in the First World War: Uniforms and equipment of the Austro-Hungarian army from 1914 to 1918. Vienna: Verlag Militaria. p. 141. ISBN 978-3-9501642-1-3. ^ "About WWI & WWII German & Austro-Hungarian Helmets". Alexander & Sons Restorations.
Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2016. ^ Tubbs & Clawson (2000), p. 24. ^ a b Bell, Brian C.; Lyles, Kevin (2004). Wehrmacht Combat Helmets 1933-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 1-84176-725-5. ^ Hitler's auxiliaries ^ Stahlhelm ^ Picture of original helmet in dark blue ^ Picture of Feldgrum Volkssturm helmet ^ Volkssturm helmet ^ M44 Luftschutz helmet ^ German helmets ^ "M35 Stahlhelm vs.
M40 Stahlhelm". Helmet History. Luftm40. Retrieved 5 June 2013. ^ Dunford, Jeffrey Lynn. "Weapons and Equipment of the Fallschirmjäger". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014. ^ a b "World War II Combat Helmet Types". German-Helmets.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014. ^ Hancock, M. Donald (1973). The Bundeswehr and the National People's Army: A Comparative Study of German Civil-Military Polity. University of Denver.
p. 25. ^ Smith, Digby George (1980). Army Uniforms Since 1945. Poole, England: Blandford Press. ISBN 9780713709919. ^ Baer, Ludwig (1977). Die Geschichte des Deutschen Stahlhelmes: von 1915 bis 1945; seine Geschichte in Wort u. Bild [The history of German steel helmets: from 1915 to 1945; their story in words & pictures] (in German). Eschborn: L. Baer (Selbstverlag). ^ a b Tubbs & Clawson (2000), p.
80-81. ^ Lucy, Roger (January 2015). ""Euroclones": An essential guide to postwar steel helmets". OCAD Militaria Collectors Resource. Retrieved 26 November 2016. ^ "Collector Topics: Helmet Decals". German-helmets.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014. References Sheldon, Jack (2007). The German Army on the Somme 1914–1916. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 978-1-84415-513-2.
OCLC 72868781. Tubbs, Floyd R.; Clawson, Robert W. (2000). Stahlhelm: Evolution of the German Steel Helmet (Revised and expanded ed.). Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873386777. OCLC 43706682. Krause, Jürgen (1984). "Stahlhelme vom Ersten Weltkrieg bis zur Gegenwart" [Steel helmets from the First World War to the present] (PDF). Veröffentlichungen des Bayerischen Armeemuseums.
Vol. 8 (in German). Special exhibition at Bayerisches Armeemuseum, Ingolstadt. v t e Helmets Individual historical helmets Agighiol Agris Benty Grange Canterbury Ciumeşti Coppergate Coțofenești Coventry Sallet Crosby Garrett Emesa Gjermundbu Guisborough Hallaton Iron Gates Meyrick Newstead Nijmegen Peretu Pioneer Ribchester Shorwell Staffordshire Sutton Hoo Waterloo Witcham Gravel Combat Ancient Attic Boar's tusk Boeotian Chalcidian Coolus Corinthian Galea Illyrian type Imperial Kegelhelm Konos Late Roman ridge Montefortino Negau Phrygian Shmarjet Medieval and Early Modern Armet Aventail Barbute Bascinet Burgonet Cervelliere Close Enclosed Falling buffe Frog-mouth Great Hounskull Kabuto Kettle Kulah khud Lobster-tailed pot Mempo Morion Nasal Pickelhaube Sallet Secrete Spangenhelm Turban 1914–1945 Adrian Brodie Bulgarian M36 Danish M1923 German Stahlhelm Greek M1934/39 Italian M33 M42 Duperite M1 Mk III Mk IV Portuguese M1940 Polish wz.
31 RAC Soviet of WWII SSK 90 Swiss L'Eplattenier 1945–1980 CABAL II CCB CG634 GK80 Head Gear System HSAT JK 96 Lightweight Mº 44 E.T.A. M63 M76 Para M1C Mk IV Mk 6 Mk 7 Modèle 1951 Modèle 1978 Modular Integrated Communications MPC-1 OR-201 Paratrooper SSh-60 SSh-68 Type 66 1980–present Advanced Combat Enhanced Combat (Aust) Enhanced Combat (US) GOLFO Iraqi M80 Iraqi M90 M87 Sfera SPECTRA PASGT Athletic Batting Coolflo Bicycle Stackhat Cricket Diving Equestrian Gridiron football Eyeshield Revolution Hockey Lacrosse Motorcycle Racing Ski Work Custodian Firefighter's Hard hat Lifeboatman's Riot protection Welding Other Heraldic use Horned Mahiole Tarnhelm Pith American fiber Winged Zuckerman v t e Austro-Hungarian infantry weapons and equipment of World War I Side arms Revolvers M1870 Gasser (limited) Gasser-Kropatschek M1876 (limited) Rast & Gasser M1898 Pistols Roth-Steyr M1907 Steyr-Pieper M1908 Steyr-Pieper M1909 Frommer Stop Steyr M1912 Mauser C96 (purchased) Dreyse M1907 (purchased) Rifles Domestic Werndl-Holub M1867 (limited) Kropatschek M1886 (limited) Mannlicher M1886 Mannlicher M1888 Mannlicher M1890 Carbine Mannlicher M1893 Mannlicher M1895 Mannlicher-Schönauer Gewehr 1888 Mexican Mauser M1912 Foreign Berdan rifle (captured) Ottoman Mauser (in Ottoman Empire) Mosin-Nagant M1891 (captured) Carcano M1891 (captured) Type 30 (captured) Type 38 (captured) Hand grenades M15 stick grenade M17 egg grenade M17 stick grenade Machine guns Domestic Salvator-Dormus M1893 Schwarzlose M.
7 Schwarzlose M.7/12 Foreign Perino M1908 (captured) Maxim M1910 (captured) Fiat-Revelli M1914 (captured) Villar-Perosa M1915 (captured) Madsen (purchased) Helmets M16 Stahlhelm M17 Stahlhelm Berndorf helmet Other equipment Hebel M1894 flare gun Authority control GND: 4372625-2 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stahlhelm&oldid=820599101"See Also: Motorcycle Radio Kit
The economies in operation need to be established over against the first price tag. The Diesel engine ship is in several strategies a much cheaper provider compared to steam boiler ship, and that is a glutton for oil gasoline. It really is worthy of notice that larger internal combustion oil ships are getting the sea every thirty day period.
An oil improve is one area that each automobile operator has to deal with at 1 time or an additional. It could be a routine event, however you could reward from figuring out some details and heritage driving motor oil as well as the inside combustion motor for which it had been intended.
Fascinating history of motorbikes in warfare has been uncovered by author writing new book on the subjectPhotos show how central BMW bikes came to Hitler's war effort as he unleashed Blitzkrieg in Europe in 1939Agile bikes were useful on the battlefield as well as on the home front, impressed crowds at stunt displaysBy Richard Spillett for MailOnline Published: 08:09 EST, 20 November 2017 | Updated: 13:57 EST, 20 November 2017 The Spitfires of the Battle of Britain and Russian T-34 tanks which fought in Kursk are often seen as the most influential machines of the Second World War.
But pictures unearthed for a new book show just how central motorbikes were to the Nazi war effort as Hitler unleashed Blitzkrieg on the continent.The Nazis used motorbikes as a key part of their fast-moving attacks which tore through Holland, Poland and Czechoslovakia at the start of the war.The newly-discovered pictures show the iconic German motorbike and sidecars which have since appeared in scores of war films, as well as the stunts pulled by riders as they attempted to show off their skills.
A new book studying motorbikes during the Second World War features a number of stunning photos of Nazi soldiers performing stunts, including these National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) riders showing off before the Hitler Youth The book documents some of the kit which has since appeared in scores of war films, including these leather trenchcoats The allure of the motorbike in occupied lands is shown in this photo of a French woman sitting in a German sidecar Hundreds of riders from Hitler's NSKK corp (pictured in Bavaria) used the BMWs being rolled off production lines in Germany The importance of bikes to the war and the enthusiasm they fostered among the public is shown here in a photo of Hitler with German motorcycle racer and former land speed record holder Ernst Jakob Henne The motorbikes were put to use for propaganda on the home front, with displays before large crowds used to boost morale A German motorcyclist jumps through a sheet of newspaper before crowds in a display before the war started in June 1938 The book also shows other attempts at creating a military bike, such as the French bid to combine the motorbike and the tank in this LeHaitre prototype from 1939As well as forming part of the attack, motorbikes were widely used by Hitler's forces to carry out patrols in occupied countries and carry messages to and from Berlin.
Paul Garson, author of the book Two-Wheeled Blitzkrieg, said: 'Motorcycles have been going to war as long as there have been motorcycles around to go to war. 'They were recruited for the battlefield thanks to their merits of speed, manoeuvrability and adaptability as a weapons platform – not to mention their cost effectiveness when compared to other mechanized implements of modern warfare.'Mr Garson uncovered the story of one rider who loved his motorbike so much he offered to buy it from the army at the end of the war.
Motorcycle corp riders in infamous Nazi helmets joke around with a pram during a manoeuver by the group during the war Motorbikes and sidecars were popular among Nazi high command as they were quick to fix and agile in the battlefield The book sets out how the German army developed motorbikes for warfare starting from the First World War The BMW bikes used by the Wehrmacht suited the 'Blitzkrieg' style of rapid-advance attack favoured by Nazi high command The lifestyle of the motorbike rider was used to attract youngsters to the Nazi cause at home and in occupied countries This photo of troops moving through France in 1940 shows the advantages of bikes over other forms of transport A Luftwaffe corporal stands by an army trooper and a young boy aboard a civilian DKV Luxus 200 before the war in the 1930sThe bikes were so successful in the German attack on the Soviet Union that Stalin himself ordered his factories to start producing bikes copying the BMW design used by the Germans.
In the later stages of the war, the US also significantly increased motorbike production, with over 90,000 being produced during the war.The pictures unearthed by Mr Garson's research also show pre-war motorbikes used by the military.He added: 'Motorcycles were first introduced into the German military arsenal in 1904 when fourteen NSU machines appeared during the Imperial Manoeuvres,' Paul said.'By 1911, with the addition of sidecars that could carry additional men, weapons and material, some five-thousand-four-hundred machines joined the German army during the First World War of 1914–18.
'Two-Wheeled Blitzkrieg is published by Amberley Publishing. The pictures show some of the bizarre attempts nations made to utilise bikes for war, including this British photo from 1889 A French soldier in the 1920s uses a machine gun mounted on the back of a bike during a practice exercise